AttoMap-310

XRF Microscope
Highest resolution XRF on the market Vacuum enclosure for low-Z elements

Key Advantages:

All the benefits of the AttoMap-200:

Plus, advances exclusive to the AttoMap-310, including:

Highest Resolution of any XRF Microscope on the Market

Micro x-ray fluorescence (microXRF) as a technique provides excellent sensitivity for compositional analysis, with sensitivities typically 1000X that of electron-based spectroscopy (ppm vs. ppt). The major limitation for laboratory-based microXRF has been the spot sizes achievable, which are typically around 20-50 µm. Sigray AttoMap achieves the highest spatial resolutions available on the order of single digit micrometers (3-5 µm) through the use of Sigray’s proprietary x-ray focusing optics. These x-ray focusing optics are much higher in efficiency and produce far smaller spot sizes than the polycapillary optics used by other laboratory microXRFs.

Sub-ppm Sensitivities (Sub-Femtogram)

AttoMap achieves unprecedented sensitivities at absolute detection limits of sub-femtogram and relative detection limits of sub-parts per million. This enables microscopy of trace element distributions at good throughput. The system’s accuracy and speed are why the AttoMap has been adopted by leading semiconductor companies for monitoring processes involving trace-level dopants.

Cobalt laddered measurements demonstrating lower limit of detection (LLD) of 0.03 Angstroms equivalent film thickness, or around 8.75 x 10^12 atoms/cm^2
Energy Tunability for High Throughput and Sensitivities

X-ray fluorescence is highly dependent on the energy of the illuminating x-ray beam. Fluorescence cross-sections can vary by several orders of magnitude, as can be seen in the corresponding table of a select number of elements. Sigray’s AttoMap-310 provides easy software-selection of up to 5 target materials, including exotic target materials such as a silicon-based source and a gold-based source, to ensure the ultimate sensitivity for a broad range of elements. Other x-ray sources are limited to only a single x-ray target material, which only allows maximizing the sensitivity and throughput for a subset of materials.

A visual depiction of how significant the impact of energy tunability through x-ray source target selection can be seen in the image below, comparing an arsenopyrite sample imaged using a tungsten (W) target and a molybdenum (Mo) target.

Fluorescence cross-sections in barns/atom for select elements of interest as a function of x-ray source target material (top row). As you can see, fluorescence cross-sections can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on x-ray target selection!
Comparison of As channel in a arsenopyrite sample. Arsenic sensitivity is dramatically increased because of the substantially better As fluorescence cross-section for Mo than W
Shallow Angle Imaging for Biological, Geological, and Semiconductor Samples

A key feature on the AttoMap-310 is its incorporation of a goniometer stage that allows for a wide range of incidence angles from normal incidence (90 degrees) to near-grazing (3 degrees) incidence. This provides a number of advantages. For thin samples such as tissue sections or thin films, the imaging can be vastly improved at shallower x-ray incidence angles because the x-ray interaction volume increases and the background is substantially reduced. For crystalline samples (e.g., silicon wafers), diffraction peaks can be completely avoided.

Light Element Detection

AttoMap-310 provides detection of elements down to B and enables trace-level (<1%) quantification of organics such as C, O, N. This is accomplished through the system’s incorporation of a specialized low energy detector and a vacuum enclosure that achieves evacuated environments of better than 10^-4 Torr. The system can also be run in ambient mode for maximum flexibility.

Phosphorus and sulfur channels in a mouse ovary

System Features

  1. Patented high brightness x-ray source with 50X brightness over those used in other leading microXRF systems and provides up to 5 different spectra in a single source
  2. Mirror Lens x-ray optics with major advantages over conventional polycapillary microXRF systems 
  3. Goniometer stage for variable angle imaging (3 to 90 degrees)
  4. Vacuum enclosure that achieves down to <10^-4 Torr
  5. Wide range of flexible and intuitive software routines, from mineralogy to semiconductor-focused wafer pattern navigation, flexible and customizable Jupyter notebooks, and fundamental parameters analysis for weight percentages
Patented Multi-Target Ultrahigh Brightness X-ray Source

Sigray’s x-ray source, when combined with the x-ray optics, has over 50X the brightness over the illumination beam (source + optics) systems employed by other leading microXRF systems. The source accomplishes this through a patented design in which multiple target materials are in optimal thermal contact with diamond, which has excellent thermal conductivity properties. The rapid cooling of diamond enables higher power loading on the x-ray source to produce an intense beams of x-rays. This thermal benefit enables more materials to be used as x-ray source target materials, each of which produce strong characteristic x-rays of a specific energy. Up to 5 target materials can be customized for the AttoMap-310 source, allowing software selection of the optimal spectra for your sample. The power of energy tunability can be clearly seen in the example shown previously.

Select up to 5 elements for your AttoMap-310 x-ray source. Examples are given above but additional targets (e.g., Ti, Ag, etc.) may be provided upon request.
Mirror Lens: Double Paraboloidal X-ray Optics

The focusing x-ray optic rivals the x-ray source in importance to the performance of any microXRF system. Sigray is the leading producer of x-ray optics and only producer capable of fabricating the mirror lens x-ray imaging optics used in the AttoMap systems. Other microXRF systems use polycapillary optics to guide x-rays onto a spot at the sample.

Sigray’s mirror lens overcomes several major drawbacks of polycapillaries, including their limited depth-of-field and chromatic aberrations. AttoMap’s larger depth-of-field enables high resolution imaging of samples that cannot be finely polished to a flat surface and/or have topography. The lack of chromatic aberrations also enables superior quantification because there is only a single spot producing x-rays on the sample (when chromatic aberration is present, different x-ray energies are focused to different diameters on the sample, making it challenging to determine where the x-rays are produced).

Polycapillary (left) produces a smeared focal spot due to chromatic aberrations (larger spot sizes for lower x-ray energies). Sigray’s mirror lens optic (right) produces a single tightly focused “pencil beam” with no chromatic aberrations.
Goniometer Stage

AttoMap-310 can achieve near-grazing incidences on samples. This maximizes solid angle of collection of the detector and the x-ray interaction with thin samples, leading to substantially faster acquisition times. By rotating the sample through a patent-pending approach called Computed Laminography X-ray Fluorescence Imaging (CL-XRFI), high resolution can be achieved even when acquiring at low incidence angles. Another benefit of variable angle acquisitions is that diffraction peaks from crystalline materials, such as silicon wafers, can be completely avoided.

Vacuum Enclosure

AttoMap-310 is enclosed in vacuum chamber capable of environments down to below 10^-4 Torr. This is critical for trace-level (<1%) quantification of low atomic number elements, such as organic contaminants. In comparison, systems with lower vacuum or helium environments can only detect large concentrations of organic materials because the low x-ray energies of these elements (for example, carbon is only 282 eV) are quickly attenuated by the presence of even a small number of atoms between the sample and the detector.

Software

AttoMap-310 comes with a suite of extendable and intuitive software. The software provided varies with the application of interest:

  • Semiconductor: Automated pattern recognition on wafers enables high throughput recipe-based point analysis on wafers.
  • Geology: Mineralogical classification through an AI-based clustering algorithm to segment grains and identify their mineralogy based on the elemental composition.
  • Materials Science and Life Sciences: Weight percentage through both standards-based and standardless fundamental parameters analysis through a GUI interface. Sigray also provides Jupyter notebooks customized for quantification routines of interest and can be easily extended or modified by users with some understanding of Python.

Applications

Mineralogy

Automated mineralogy using scanning electron microscope (SEM) has become a dominant approach used in natural resource exploration and process monitoring. AttoMap provides a powerful complement to SEM-based mineralogy approaches by providing 1000X the sensitivity of SEM-EDS for trace elemental mapping. The system’s intuitive software provides AI-based grain segmentation and mineralogical identification.

Mineralogical mapping using Sigray’s AttoMap (left), a correlative optical image acquired with the AttoMap (upper right), and a SEM-EDS image of the same sample.
Life Sciences and Metallomics

AttoMap was originally designed for life science research with support of NIH funding. Applications in the life sciences include studying pathologies (e.g., cancer and Wilson’s Disease) that are hypothesized to be related to dysregulation of trace elements such as iron and copper, the distribution of nanoparticle-based therapeutics after injection, and environmental uptake of contaminants.

Elemental channels of a daphnia water flea
Semiconductor

AttoMap has been adopted by leading semiconductor companies for monitoring dopants and ultrathin films on test patterns. The system also provides trace-level measurements of organic contaminants and low atomic number (Z) materials such as B within its vacuum environment. Pattern recognition based software enables unsupervised, recipe-based acquisition of points for high efficiency.

For backend packaging, AttoMap provides high throughput metrology of micropillar dimensions, quantification of voids in microbumps, and rapid identification of defects.

300mm wafer in AttoMap
Environmental / Botany

Synchrotron XRF has become a technique of choice for many plant scientists for understanding element distribution. Such studies include metal uptake for photoremediation (reclaiming the environment), nutrient uptake, and genetically modified plants for desirable characteristics such as drought-resistance and improvement to nutritional content.

Hyperaccumulating seedling

Technical Specifications of the AttoMap-310

 ParameterSpecification
OverallSpatial ResolutionDown to 3-5 μm with high resolution optic. 7-10 μm with standard optics.
SensitivitySub-ppm relative detection sensitivity. Picogram to femtogram absolute sensitivity.
Variable Angle Acquisition3 degrees (near-grazing) to 90 degrees (normal) in 0.01 degree increments.
SourceTypeSigray patented ultrahigh brightness sealed microfocus source
Target(s)Up to 5 targets.
Includes selection from Si, Cr, Cu, Rh, W, Mo, Au, Ti, Ag.
Others available upon request.
Power | Voltage50W | 20-50 kVp
X-ray OpticTypeSigray proprietary double paraboloidal x-ray mirror lens
Transmission Efficiency~80%
Magnification1:1 magnification default
Demagnifying optics for higher resolution available upon request
Interior CoatingPlatinum for increasing collection efficiency of optic
X-ray DetectorTypeSDD Detector
Energy Resolution<129 eV at Mn-Ka
DimensionsFootprint54" W x 65.5" H x 38.5" D
Stage Travel100 x 100 mm (upgrades available upon request)
Maximum Sample Size30 x 30 mm for grazing angle (3 degrees)
Additional CapabilitiesOther ModalitiesIntegrated optical microscope and transmission x-ray microscope for alignment
SoftwareSigray Composition (GUI-based analysis tool)
Semiconductor Acquisition
Jupyter notebooks available upon request

Downloads

Brochures and Specification Sheets

AttoMap-310 Brochure

AttoMap-200 Brochure

AttoMap White Paper

Application Notes

Trace Elements in Plants

Semiconductor Dopants

Glass Metrology


Contact Us

Interested in how the Sigray AttoMap™ will help your particular application?
For a quotation and to inquire about a demonstration of the system on your particular research interests, please fill out the following inquiry form and we will get back to you within 1-2 business days.