X-rays in Semiconductor

Sigray’s x-ray solutions include 3D x-ray microscopes and microXRF systems in vacuum environments. These systems are used for a range of semiconductor applications, including everything from inspection of wafer contamination and silicon-side process monitoring to failure analysis of packaging.

Front-end-of-the-line (FEOL) Process Monitoring

Sigray’s AttoMap XRF has been adopted by leading semiconductor companies for inspection of FEOL processes due to its accurate quantification and small spot sizes of 3-20 µm, allowing focusing of the beam completely within a 40 µm test pattern. The high sensitivity of the AttoMap enables quantitative analysis of trace levels of dopants and has demonstrated down to sub-Angstrom equivalent thickness.

Laddered sample performed on AttoMap-200 showing high degree of linearity and sensitivity down to 0.03 Angstroms of equivalent thickness for Co

Organic Contaminants and Trace Low-Z Elements

There is a general misperception that quantification of low atomic number (Z) elements such as B, C, O, and N at minor to trace levels is not achievable with microXRF at high resolutions. AttoMap-310 features a high vacuum chamber and a patented Si-based x-ray source that provides optimal illumination for low atomic number elements. Information on B doping and organic contamination can be achieved at excellent resolution (10-100 µm).

Packaging Failure Analysis – Absorption Contrast

Sigray has developed a revolutionary new approach to failure analysis with a patent-pending acquisition geometry for flat samples. Using this method, acquisition times of 10X faster than the next leading competitor at submicron spatial resolutions can be achieved. This system is an R&D system that is pre-release.

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Packaging Failure Analysis – Tri-Contrast

Sigray’s PrismaXRM system uniquely offers tri-contrast imaging capabilities, in which three x-ray contrast mechanisms simultaneously are acquired simultaneously, including: conventional absorption contrast, Quantitative Phase, and Sub-resolution Darkfield. Defects that are extremely challenging to see with conventional absorption contrast, such as low Z defects (e.g., silicon and polymer defects) and delaminations show promise to be determined using the unique contrast modes in the PrismaXRM. Furthermore, presence of small voids can be quickly assessed in Darkfield imaging that cannot be seen with absorption contrast alone.

System in Package – Defect in epoxy molding seen with quantitative phase and suspected delamination due to increased darkfield signal